The research team, including a pediatric pulmonologist and a respiratory therapist asthma educator, developed 13 prepared questions and prompts. The questions were based on a review of the literature with a focus on health goals, asthma care including environmental factors, medications, school support, family support, and issues relating to access to medical care. A content review of the questions was conducted by a pulmonologist and two pediatricians.
The focus group sessions were lead by two experienced facilitators (associated with the University of Michigan) who were present for all discussions applying a format outlined by Krueger. The groups were conducted in a manner to ensure anonymity, minimize group pressure, and encourage honest and spontaneous discussion. The moderators listened carefully to the participants and sought clarification of verbal and nonverbal responses, and asked participants to verify summarizing comments. Follow-up probe questions were asked to encourage and maintain discussion of topics. The moderators discussed and summarized each group discussion immediately after the gathering.
The 2.5-h sessions were recorded and transcribed verbatim. A study member using the audiotapes to ensure transcription accuracy reviewed the transcripts. Formatting for individual comments on the transcripts was included. This allowed for classification and facilitator comments as well as identification and blocking out of unrelated conversation and questions. http://buy-asthma-inhalers-online.com/ventolin-inhaler-100mcg-salbutamol.html
Parents completed a demographic questionnaire (income, age, education) prior to the start of the focus group. Descriptive information for parents and children are presented using summary statistics (Table 1). The focus group transcripts were coded line by line for distinct themes. Themes were defined as distinct categories, concepts, or ideas regarding aspects of asthma care using software (Nudist 5; QSR International Pty. Ltd; Melbourne, Australia). Categories were developed, and the transcripts were coded independently by two sets of coders who did not attend the focus group sessions: one pediatric pulmonologist, and a team of one respiratory therapist plus another study member. The two raters met to resolve coding differences between categories and subcategories of barriers. Interrater reliability for the categories was assessed using к statistic with the overall (four groups) proportion of agreement (p0 = 0.96).
Table 1—Selected Caregiver Participant Demographics (n = 36)
|Female gender||35 (97)|
|Foster mother||1 (3)|
|> 55||1 (3)|
|African American||23 (64)|
|Not reported||1 (3)|
|Household income, $|
|< 10,000||11 (31)|
|> 40,000||2 (6)|
|Years of education, No.||13 (12, 14)|
|People in household, No.||4 (3, 5)|
|People in home with asthma, No.||2 (1, 3)|