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Pulmonary Function and Cardiovascular Risk Factor: Discussion (6)

Pulmonary Function and Cardiovascular Risk Factor: Discussion (6)Associations between pulmonary function and cigarette smoking, shortness of breath, fatness, blood lipids and insulin levels, white blood cell count, hemoglobin, physical activity, fitness, and psychologic characteristics are consistent with an inverse association between pulmonary function and incidence of cardiovascular disease. Relationships between pulmonary function and several cardiovascular risk variables are independent of smoking habits but may reflect fatness or fitness. However, the nature and direction of these relationships cannot be deduced from cross-sectional data. buy yasmin online

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Pulmonary Function and Cardiovascular Risk Factor: Discussion (5)

However, none of these explanations can account completely for the associations between pulmonary function and cardiovascular risk factors found in this biracial cohort of predominantly healthy young adults. Exposure to cigarette smoke may be partially responsible for low levels of pulmonary function, poor performance on the treadmill, and low levels of HDL cholesterol, but correlations among these characteristics were present in nonsmokers as well as smokers, and relationships between smoking and fatness are in the wrong direction to account for the relationships between fatness and pulmonary function or fatness and cardiovascular risk factors.

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Pulmonary Function and Cardiovascular Risk Factor: Discussion (4)

Pulmonary Function and Cardiovascular Risk Factor: Discussion (4)The authors concluded that the association between pulmonary function and CHD can be explained by cigarette smoking and that inclusion of cigarette smoking in a multivariate model may not control that exposure adequately. However, the smoking-specific analyses in the CARDIA cohort show that in never smokers as well as in current smokers, pulmonary function was correlated with cardiovascular risk factors, including subscapular skinfolds, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin, physical activity, duration of treadmill exercise, and a measure of hostility. In addition, breathlessness was also related to FEVi in women who were never smokers, exsmokers, or current smokers. The conclusions from correlations controlling for smoking are similar. birth control yasmin
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Pulmonary Function and Cardiovascular Risk Factor: Discussion (3)

Correlations between FEV! or FVC and the FEV/FVC ratio are only 0.2, and it is not surprising that the ratio of the two measurements is not a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. In recent unpublished analyses of the Framingham data, comparing height-adjusted values of FVC and FEVi, neither measure was consistently better than the other as a predictor of CHD. buy cheap antibiotics
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Pulmonary Function and Cardiovascular Risk Factor: Discussion (2)

Pulmonary Function and Cardiovascular Risk Factor: Discussion (2)The CARDIA cohort is too young for these diseases to be prevalent, and associations between pulmonary function and other risk factors are not the result of disease. In fact, pulmonary function values are at their peak in young adults, and evidence of the decline that occurs with increasing age was detected only among white men. Observations on healthy young adults may shed light on physiologic relationships and on the pathogenesis of heart and lung diseases, thereby increasing understanding of the role of pulmonary function as a predictor of cardiovascular disease. antibiotic levaquin
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Pulmonary Function and Cardiovascular Risk Factor: Discussion (1)

In 18- to 30-year-old black and white male and female participants in a multicenter, longitudinal, epidemiologic study, associations between pulmonary (unction and several cardiovascular risk factors were identified. FEV! adjusted for height (and age in white men) was lower in persons who said they were breathless on exertion, in cigarette smokers, in fatter or more hostile individuals, and in individuals with higher levels of circulating triglycerides or insulin. FEV/Ht2 was higher in persons who reported more physical activity, who exercised longer on the treadmill, and who had higher levels of HDL cholesterol. Although the correlations and associations were small in magnitude, they were consistent across race and sex groups and they were about as large as the lung function correlation with cigarette smoking, which is known to be biologically important. antibiotics levaquin
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Pulmonary Function and Cardiovascular Risk Factor: Results (6)

Pulmonary Function and Cardiovascular Risk Factor: Results (6)The emergence of a significant positive correlation between FEVi/Ht2 and systolic blood pressure may have a similar explanation. The effects of controlling for fitness (indicated by duration of treadmill exercise) were generally similar to effects of controlling for fatness, and when both fatness and fitness were controlled, associations with HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and insulin were no longer significant. Analyses in Table 5 were repeated with FVC/Ht2 which was quite highly correlated with FEV/Ht2 (r=.78). Not surprisingly, correlations with the cardiovascular risk variables were similar but slightly smaller except for systolic blood pressure where they were statistically significant (r=.06,.05, and.09) in total and when cigarettes per day and cigarettes and subscapular skinfold were controlled. ampicillin antibiotic

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Pulmonary Function and Cardiovascular Risk Factor: Results (5)

The analyses were repeated for smoking-specific groups after adjusting for sex and race. All the associations that were significant in all sex, race groups were present in never smokers and current smokers separately except for Cook Medley score, which was significant only in never smokers (Table 3). Buy Advair Diskus Online
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Pulmonary Function and Cardiovascular Risk Factor: Results (4)

Pulmonary Function and Cardiovascular Risk Factor: Results (4)There was an inverse relationship between serum insulin and pulmonary (unction in both black and white men and women. lime to stopping a graded maximal treadmill exercise test increased significantly with increasing quintile of FEV/Ht2 in black and in white men and women. The heart rate attained at a specific level of the treadmill exercise (stage 5 for men, 3 for women) (not shown) and the difference between this value and the preexercise heart rate were not significant correlates of FEV/Ht2. Duration of treadmill exercise may reflect fitness or willingness to make a maximal effort. The exercise score developed (rom responses to standard questions about habitual physical activity was related positively to FEV adjusted for height in each of the CARDIA sex, race groups.
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Pulmonary Function and Cardiovascular Risk Factor: Results (3)

In Table 4, prevalence rates or mean values of cardiovascular risk variables are shown for individuals grouped according to sex and race specific quintiles of FEV/Ht2. In Table 3, correlations between FEV/Ht2 and cardiovascular risk variables are presented for sex- and race-specific groups. proventil inhaler
General and regional measures of body fat included in these analyses were BMI, subscapular skinfold, and waist and hip girths. Subscapular skinfolds were related inversely to FEV/Ht2 in all four sex and race groups and were largest in men and women with the lowest FEVs and generally decreased with increasing level of pulmonary (unction (Tables 3 and 4). The correlations between FEV/Ht2 and triceps and su-prailiac skinfolds were smaller but also statistically significant for the total cohort and for white men and women and black women, but not for black men (data not shown). Body mass index and waist/hip ratio were correlated with FEVi/Ht2 only in black women.
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