We found that the prevalence of exposures and the associations between asthma and some indoor environmental exposures differed between two communities within the southern region of Saskatchewan. We have provided further evidence that exposure to ETS in children is important when considering asthma — flovent inhaler. We have also shown that other indoor environmental characteristics, such as home mould or dampness, are important but may be most significant at a local level. Finally, we have shown that although risk factors for asthma are generally similar in boys and girls, there are potential differences.
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Although the communities we studied were both in the southern region of Saskatchewan and had many similarities in size and industry, some differences may have influenced the findings. The area surrounding Estevan is the site of strip mining for coal and coal-fired power plants. Air quality measurements were available in Estevan; however, they were not available in Swift Current and, therefore, could not be used in the present study. Estevan averages more annual rainfall than Swift Current (333.1 mm versus 265.2 mm, respectively), and has a lower unemployment rate than Swift Current (2.2% versus 3.8%), although both communities are below the Canadian unemployment rate. ventolin inhaler
Hessel et al and Duhme et al have shown that environmental factors are not consistently associated with asthma across different locations within the same study. Although our study supports this, some of the significant associations between asthma and environmental factors differed between our study and that of Hessel et al and Duhme et al. These inconsistencies could be due to differences in methods or variations in settings. Buy Asthma Inhalers Online
In the sex-stratified analysis, similar associations between asthma and risk factors were similar for both boys and girls; however, levels of significance were not met for the associations between mould or dampness and asthma in boys, and for previous ETS exposure from the mother in girls. The lack of statistical significance may be due to reduced sample size in the stratified analysis because the patterns and strength of associations were similar between boys and girls. A notable difference, however, was the significant association between rural living and asthma in girls. This finding for girls contradicts the more common pattern of reduced risk of asthma in rural settings such as farms. Reasons for this finding could not be determined from the present study. Future investigations should consider sex when investigating rural exposures. buy prednisone
Several studies and reviews have shown that parental smoking, especially maternal smoking, is associated with asthma or asthma symptoms. Our findings for current ETS exposure are difficult to interpret. It is possible that many of the mothers quit smoking as a result of their child’s asthma diagnosis, or those who are currently smoking may be smoking outside of the child’s environment, resulting in no relationship or inverse associations with asthma. More information about the nature of current smoking patterns of parents is required.
The results of our study confirm previously identified associations between personal characteristics and asthma, and also highlight the need to interpret associations between asthma and indoor environmental characteristics at a local level. In the present study, respiratory allergy was most strongly associated with asthma. Similarly, strong associations between allergy and asthma have been seen in other studies. Our study also supports previous studies showing that having at least one parent with asthma increases a child’s risk of developing asthma. Whereas other studies report inconsistent associations between early respiratory illnesses and asthma, our findings of an association were consistent between communities.
These associations were not significant in Swift Current. Although there was an increased risk of asthma in both communities if the child had previous ETS exposure from the mother (Swift Current: OR=1.87, 95% CI 1.06 to 3.30; Estevan: OR=2.00, 95% CI 1.17 to 3.43), there was an inverse association between asthma and current ETS exposure in Estevan that was borderline significant (OR=0.64, 95% CI 0.40 to 1.00), and there was no significant association between asthma and mother’s current smoking in Swift Current.
In Estevan, associations were found between asthma and prior exposure to ETS from the father (OR=1.67, 95% CI 1.07 to 2.60), the presence of home mould or dampness (OR=1.96, 95% CI 1.41 to 2.72), the presence of air conditioning (OR=0.57, 95% CI 0.41 to 0.80), and the presence of a fireplace (OR=0.69, 95% CI 0.48 to 0.99).
The prevalence of asthma was significantly higher in Estevan compared with Swift Current (21.4% versus 16.2%, respectively, crude OR=1.41, 95% CI 1.13 to 1.76). When considering personal characteristics, there were significant associations between asthma and respiratory allergy, early respiratory illness and family history of asthma (Table 3). Indoor characteristics associated with asthma were previous exposure to ETS from the mother, home mould or dampness, and living in a dwelling other than a single-family house (Table 4).
Participation in both communities was excellent; 88.9% in Swift Current and 94.2% in Estevan. The sex distribution was similar between Swift Current and Estevan (49.9% and 49.5% female, respectively). The prevalence of personal characteristics by town is presented in Table 1. A significantly higher proportion of children in Swift Current had a parent with more than a grade 12 education compared with children in Estevan, and a significantly lower proportion of children in Swift Current came from homes with two parents. ventolin inhalers