Pulmonary Function and Cardiovascular Risk Factor

Pulmonary Function and Cardiovascular Risk Factor Pulmonary function is related inversely to death from all causes combined, and its association with mortality from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), lung cancer, and other respiratory diseases is established and quite well understood.’ Reasons for an inverse association between pulmonary function and cardiovascular disease incidence are not clear, although relationships between impaired pulmonary function and overt cardiovascular disease are established and cigarette smoking is recognized as a risk factor for both pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases. ventolin 100 mcg
However, the association extends throughout the distribution of pulmonary function and is not restricted to the abnormal end of the range.* In Framingham, age-adjusted average annual incidence rates of cardiovascular events decreased as height-adjusted forced vital capacity (FVC/Ht) increased and these relationships remained significant in multivariate analyses controlling for major risk factors in addition to age, namely systolic blood pressure, serum cholesterol, cigarettes smoked per day, glucose intolerance, and electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy. FVC/Ht was a risk factor for congestive heart failure (CHF) and for total coronary heart disease (CHD) and myocardial infarction (MI) except in older men. In multivariate analyses, FVC/Ht was a predictor of CHF incidence in both sexes, but it predicted CHD and MI only in women. Whether pulmonary function is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease is controversial since it was a predictor after controlling for cigarette smoking in most studies but it did not predict CHD in nonsmoking men in the Honolulu Heart Study.
The purpose of the analyses to be presented is to investigate relationships between pulmonary function and cardiovascular risk factors in young adults and to suggest possible explanations for the association between pulmonary function and cardiovascular disease incidence at older ages.

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