Prostacyclin in Septic Shock: Hemodynamic and Oxygen Transport Measurements

Prostacyclin in Septic Shock: Hemodynamic and Oxygen Transport MeasurementsAll patients had pulmonary and radial artery catheters placed for hemodynamic monitoring (Swan-Ganz catheters: Edwards Laboratories, Los Angeles; transducers 5265 039: Viggo-Spec-tramed, Bilthoven, The Netherlands; electronically derived means, with reference to the midaxillary line; cardiac output [thermodilution at temperature between 6°C and 12°C]: SAT II cardiac output computer, Edwards Laboratories).
Cardiovascular pressures and cardiac output were determined immediately before withdrawal of arterial and mixed venous blood. The blood samples were immediately measured for oxygen tension and pH (ABL 2, Radiometer, Copenhagen), and hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation (Hemoximeter Osm 3, Radiometer, Copenhagen). Canadian health and care mall All blood gases were corrected to the blood temperature as measured in the pulmonary artery.
Oxygen content was calculated according to the following standard formula: [hemoglobinX1.36Xpercent saturation] +[ox-ygen tensionX0.0031]. Cardiac output was determined in triplicate at each stage. The D02 was calculated as the product of the cardiac index (cardiac output/body-surface area) and the arterial oxygen content. Direct V02 was calculated simultaneously from the respiratory gases using a monitor (Deltatrac Metabolic Monitor, Datex Instrumentarium, Helsinki, Finland). Indirect V02 was calculated from the cardiovascular Fick relationship: cardiac index X arteriovenous oxygen-content difference. The oxygen extraction ratio was calculated by dividing the arteriovenous oxygen-content difference by the arterial oxygen content. Systemic vascular resistance, the alveolar-arterial oxygen tension gradient, and the pulmonary shunt were calculated from standard equations. Arterial blood lactate levels were determined according to the methods of Marbach and Weil.

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