Participants were also asked “In the past year, according to your own experiences or what others tell you, how often did you move your body frequently or have twitches often during the night?” In addition, they were queried about usual bedtimes and wake times on weekdays vs weekends and their usual number of hours of sleep on those days. Respondents were also asked how often in the past year they had difficulty falling asleep, were awake a lot during the night, woke up too early and could not get back to sleep, woke up feeling unrefreshed, snored, had pauses in breathing during sleep, or how often they feel tired or fatigued or not up to par during wake time. Frequency responses for these items were every night or almost every night, a few nights a week, a few nights a month, rarely, or never. Persons reporting these symptoms a few nights a week or more were labeled as having the particular sleep problems/disorder. read more
The risk of having sleep apnea was estimated by use of the Berlin Questionnaire, which was embedded into the poll and which correlates reasonably well with polysomnography findings. Similarly, respondents were asked whether they had ever been told by a doctor they had the following medical conditions (yes, no): heart disease or high BP; arthritis; diabetes; lung disease; heartburn or gastroesophageal reflux disease; or anxiety disorder or depression. Demographic data were also gathered. Regions of residence were defined as follows: Northeast (Connecticut, Massachusetts, Maine, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont); Midwest (Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, North Dakota, Nebraska, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin); South (Alabama, Arkansas, Washington, DC, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia); and West (Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, New Mexico, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming).