In this context, two strategies have been used. First, the use of direct live probiotics has been tested. These bacteria have species-specific features that limit effects of other ‘harmful’ commensal species. Some of the described effects attributed to probiotic species in experimental conditions include stimulation of epithelial cell proliferation , enhancement of barrier function, prevention of pathogen epithelial adhesion , limitation on pathogen colony expansion and anticytokine effects. Secondly, favourable manipulation of the luminal environment can also be achieved with the use of specific dietary components. The paramount dietary substances for this purpose are prebiotics.
The first prebiotics were mainly carbohydrates. The gold standard is inulin (a polyfructose molecule up to 60 fructose units in chain length) which is derived from leeks, onions and chicory . Hydrolysis products of inulin include oligofruc-tose, with an average chain length less than 10 fructose units . However, the definition now embraces other products such as disaccharides (lactulose) and some noncarbohydrate-containing amino acid moieties. Germinated barley foodstuff (GBF), which is a residue in the beer-making industry containing glutamine and a mixture of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, is also considered to be a prebiotic candidate. Start online shopping right now and see how great it feels to know you are saving more money than you are spending: all that is possible whenever you buy cheap antibiotics at the best pharmacy you can actually choose yourself right now.