Impaired Quality of Life of Healthy Young Smokers: Discussion

Impaired Quality of Life of Healthy Young Smokers: DiscussionThe never-smoker group showed higher mean quality-of-life scores than the smoker group in all domains (Table 2). Smoking was significantly associated with lower scores in all quality-of-life parameters except physical role, pain index, and emotional role. The comparison of the emotional role domain was marginally significant (p = 0.0576). The statistical analysis showed no influence of a history of alcohol consumption on the results.

HRQL measurements deal with subjective experiences of how health impairments interfere with the ability to perform tasks, and mental status and social well-being. Although most smokers do not show any health problem, the burning of tobacco produces > 4,000 chemicals with well-known or potential biological actions, justifying the interest for HRQL research on such subjects,
We have studied healthy young students from two public Brazilian universities, exhibiting similar social and cultural backgrounds. A high proportion of women were observed in our smoker group (49.4%). This fact certainly does not reflect the proportion of smokers among the female population in Brazil, which is approximately 25%. The finding could be explained by a better acceptance to participate in the research among women than in men. It also could be explained by a recent trend observed in the country, where more women are looking for advanced courses than men. The smoker group displayed a higher proportion of subjects reporting regular use of alcohol. This finding agrees with published data demonstrating a relationship between smoking and alcohol abuse. It also shows that smokers are more prone to take risks and to adopt less healthy life styles. lumigan eye drops
The volunteers did not report any chronic illness, and their smoking history was short and of slight intensity. Therefore, most probably, they did not have organic disorders secondary to the chronic use of cigarettes. Nevertheless, a statistically significant reduction was observed in five SF-36 domains, comprising both physical and mental fields. Such findings could not be explained by the observed difference in the alcohol habits between groups. This suggests that young smokers more often have troubles regarding physical performance and social relations. They appear to be aware of such difficulties and do not face their condition with optimism. Similar results have been described in studies involving larger samples and older subjects.
Table 2—SF-36 Components of Healthy Young Students According to Smoking Status

SF-36 Components Smokers Never-Smokers
Alcohol Consumption (n = 54) No Alcohol Consumption

(n = 23)

I

All (n = 77)

I

Alcohol Consumption (n = 47)

No Alcohol Consumption

(n = 50)

All

(n = 97)

Physical functioning 86.9 (12.6) 85.7 (13.7) 86.5 (12.9) f 92.5 (8.3) 94.3 (6.8) 93.4 (7.6)
Physical role 82.9 (25.2) 79.4 (29.8) 81.8 (26.5) 85.1 (23.7) 83.0 (23.9) 84.0 (23.7)
Pain index 75.6 (21.1) 75.7 (21.4) 75.7(21.1) 75.5 (16.5) 79.9(10.1) 77.7 (17.4)
General health perceptions 62.5 (20.2) 68.3 (18.9) 64.3 (19.8) f 77.6 (14.3) 80.8 (12.4) 79.2 (13.4)
Vitality 58.9 (19.2) 57.4 (22.4) 58.4 (20.0) f 66.7 (13.7) 62.6 (18.6) 64.6 (16.5)
Social functioning 60.8(18.1) 55.7 (23.1) 59.3 (19.7) f 79.0 (16.3) 73.8 (22.2) 76.3 (19.6)
Emotional role 63.6 (38.5) 49.3 (37.4) 59.3 (38.5)| 66.0 (38.4) 56.7 (38.8) 61.2 (38.7)
Mental health index 67.7(21.1) 63.5 (21.1) 66.4 (21.1) f 74.9 (13.7) 69.1 (16.7) 71.9(15.5)
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