How can we battle the scourge of diarrhea: THE SCOPE OF THE PROBLEM
The burden of diarrheal diseases, and particularly those caused by enteric infections, is immense. Infections are estimated to account for 3 to 4 billion cases of diarrhea each year, and up to 4.3 million deaths in children under the age of five years . Even in developed countries, the very young, the very old, institutionalized individuals, and those persons with compromized immune systems are at risk for severe or even fatal outcomes of diarrheal illness . In fact, foodborne diseases alone have been estimated to cause approximately 5000 deaths annually in the United States, along with more than 300,000 hospitalizations and more than 76 million episodes of diarrheal illness . Only a fraction of these cases involve known pathogens, but, of these, more than 90% are attributable to three main causes – Norwalk-like viruses, Campylobacters and nontyphoidal Salmonella species . Nontyphoidal Salmonellae also account for almost a third of food-related deaths from diarrheal illness.
The economic burden represented by this massive disease prevalence is immense, being estimated conservatively in the United States at more than US$8 billion per year in 2000 dollars; other countries report proportionately similar impacts . Moreover, there is evidence to suggest that foodborne illnesses are increasing in incidence. Several reasons have been put forward to account for this, including increased antibiotic use in animals, the global trade in food and consolidation of markets, a substantial increase in international travel, an increase in vulnerable populations, changes in what and where we eat, an ignorance of basic food preparation techniques caused by societal changes, and the failure of regulatory and control mechanisms to adapt to these stresses . Indeed, in the United States, only 2000 inspectors are available to analyze imported food . Finally, antibiotic resistance is now rampant among the pathogens most frequently identified as causative agents of diarrheal disease in developing countries, suggesting that new treatments are urgently needed if we are to have any impact at all on this epidemic before more comprehensive improvements in living conditions. Visit the best pharmacy that thousands of international customers already chose to be their favorite one and see how easy it can be for you to get that cialis professional in the amount required for your treatment spending a lot less money than otherwise.
Category: Diarrhea | Tags: Chloride secretion, Diarrheal disease, Intestinal epithelial cells, Probiotics, Salmonellosis