Comparison of Tucson and Cracow Longitudinal Studies: Results (Part 2)

Comparison of Tucson and Cracow Longitudinal Studies: Results (Part 2)The proportions of subjects with persistent, new, or remitting symptoms differed markedly between both populations (Table 2). Chronic cough and/or phlegm (“bronchitis” symptoms), both persistent and new symptoms, tended to be more frequent in Cracow than in Tucson, with the most marked differences in men. Also, dyspnea was more frequent in Cracow than in Tucson, but mainly in women. In contrast, higher in Tucson were the rates of persistent wheeze, attacks of breathlessness, and the asthmatic syndrome (“asthmatic” symptoms) in both sexes. The incidence rates of new symptoms were not so different.
Covariables
The relationships of FEV, levels and FEV! changes to factors included as covariables in further analysis are shown in Table 3. In general, these regression models were similar in both cities, although some differences were also seen. The Cracow men who gave up smoking during the follow-up period had significantly faster FEV! decline than never-smokers and only in these exsmokers did that decline lead to the final FEV! level being significantly lower than in never-smokers. Cracow female exsmokers entered the follow-up period with significantly lower FEVi levels than never-smokers, but their rate of FEVL decline and final FE Vi level did not differ from these in never-smokers. In Tucson, the levels and changes in FEVi in exsmokers did not differ from these in never-smokers. Lower socioeconomic status, expressed by lower educational attainment, was associated with lower initial FEVi level in all but Tucson male subjects and was related to a significantly steeper FEV, slope in Cracow male subjects. birth control pills

Table 2—Distribution of Symptoms and the Rates of Persistence, Incidence, and Remission by Sex in Tucson and Cracow

Male Subjects

Female Subjects

Tucson

Cracow

Tucson

Cracow

n

Rate, %

n

Rate, %

n

Rate, %

n

Rate, %

Chronic cough

Never

185

69.5

400

56.0

292

78.1

768

75.0

Persistent

22

8.3

74

10.7

16

4.3

48

4.7

New

15

7.5

123

23.5

19

6.1

131

14.6

Remission

44

66.7

117

61.2

47

74.6

77

61.6

Chronic phlegm

Never

190

71.4

339

47.5

308

82.3

738

72.1

Persistent

21

7.9

118

16.5

11

2.9

54

5.3

New

10

5.0

144

29.8

17

5.2

133

15.3

Remission

45

68.2

113

48.9

38

77.6

99

64.7

Chronic bronchitis

Never

206

77.4

465

65.1

326

87.2

861

84.1

Persistent

15

5.6

44

6.2

8

2.1

21

2.1

New

8

3.7

103

18.1

14

4.1

89

9.4

Remission

37

71.2

102

70.0

26

76.5

53

71.6

Wheeze

Never

169

63.5

535

74.9

246

65.8

802

78.3

Persistent

42

15.8

40

5.6

45

12.0

34

3.3

New

28

14.2

85

13.7

42

14.6

122

13.2

Remission

27

39.1

54

57.4

41

47.7

66

66.0

Attacks of breathlessness

Never

192

72.2

586

82.1

268

71.7

856

83.6

Persistent

27

10.2

16

2.2

28

7.5

24

2.3

New

7

3.5

46

7.2

16

5.6

79

8.4

Remission

40

59.7

66

80.5

62

68.9

65

73.0

Dyspnea

Never

225

84.6

541

75.8

284

75.9

516

50.4

Persistent

14

5.3

28

3.9

18

4.8

157

15.3

New

15

6.3

99

15.5

32

10.1

208

28.7

Remission

12

46.2

46

62.3

39

68.4

143

47.7

Asthma syndrome

Never

217

81.6

628

88.0

291

77.8

910

88.8

Persistent

23

8.6

16

2.2

30

8.0

17

1.7

New

9

4.0

38

5.7

24

7.6

62

6.3

Remission

17

42.5

32

66.7

29

49.2

35

67.5

 Table 3—Regression Equations for FEV, Levels and Slope by Covariables: Tucson and Cracow Longitudinal Studies

Covariables

Male Subjects

Female Subjects

Tucson

Cracow

Tucson

Cracow

Coeff

SE

Coeff

SE

Coeff

SE

Coeff

SE

FEV, initial level, L

Age, yr X 10

— 0.30

0.03

-0.41

0.02

— 0.25

0.02

-0.28

0.01

Height, cm X 10

0.47

0.04

0.51

0.03

0.24

0.03

0.36

0.02

Smoking CCC

— 0.09

0.10

— 0.09

0.05

— 0.21

0.06

-0.04

0.04

Exsm

-0.10

0.12

-0.03

0.06

0.01

0.09

— 0.12

0.05

Elementary educ

0.03

0.10

— 0.09

0.04

— 0.18

0.07

— 0.06

0.03

Constant

-3.24

-2.38

-0.06

-1.75

R2, %

50.1

54.8

50.4

53.8

FEV, final level, L

Age, yr X 10

0.03

0.03

— 0.37

0.02

— 0.28

0.02

— 0.27

0.01

Height, cm X 10

0.36

0.03

0.38

0.04

0.23

0.04

0.33

0.02

Initial FEV,/FVC%

0.04

0.01

0.04

0.00

0.02

0.00

0.02

0.00

Smoking CCC

-0.14

0.10

-0.15

0.05

-0.27

0.06

-0,10

0.04

Cex

0.11

0.13

— 0.21

0.06

0.00

0.08

-0.07

0.06

Elementary educ

0.02

0.11

— 0.08

0.05

-0.09

0.07

— 0.06

0.03

Constant

-4.30

-4.33

-1.20

-3.16

R2, %

57.2

60.8

63.3

58.1

FEV, slope, ml/yr

Age, yr x 10

— 6.3

1.9

-8.7

1.5

— 7.6

1.0

-6.1

0.8

Height, cm x 10

— 3.4

3.9

-11.1

2.4

-2.9

2.3

— 3.9

1.5

Initial FEV,/FVC%

0.3

0.3

-0.7

0.2

— 0.5

0.2

— 0.9

0.1

Smoking CCC

— 11.7

6.2

-14.0

3.3

– 10.5

3.6

— 6.6

2.3

Cex

-6.8

7.4

-16.5

4.2

-1.6

5.3

-1.4

3.9

Elementary educ

6.2

6.5

— 6.9

3.0

5.9

4.1

-2.1

1.8

Constant

43.2

240.4

112.3

119.1

R2, %

6.8

9.1

14.5

7.2

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