Clinical Diagnosis of Congestive Heart Failure in Patients with Acute Dyspnea: Conclusion

Clinical Diagnosis of Congestive Heart Failure in Patients with Acute Dyspnea: ConclusionThe differential diagnosis of the patient with acute shortness of breath remains a fundamental clinical challenge for the practitioner. This task is not guided by clear criteria for distinguishing cardiac from pulmonary causes of dyspnea because none exist. Many noninvasive and invasive tests, such as pulmonary function testing, radionuclide angiography, and catheterization procedures, can be helpful in making this distinction. However, these procedures are most often employed in the long-term management of patients rather than in the acute setting, and none is performed at the bedside. buy levaquin online
These results support the belief that maneuvers easily appended to the physical examination can help the bedside diagnosis of congestive heart failure. In addition, these maneuvers are valid in the assessment of the acutely dyspneic patient in the emergency room setting. Although the hepatojugular reflux and Valsalva maneuvers cannot replace a thorough clinical assessment, they may provide useful adjunctive tools for the practitioner to apply in making a difficult differential diagnosis.

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