Category Archives: D-lactic acid-producing probiotics

D-lactic acid-producing probiotics and infants: D-Lactate in humans

Intestinal bacteria express either a D- or an L(+)-lactate-specific dehydrogenase, or both . Additionally, some Lactobacillus species have DL-lactate racemase which catalyzes the conversion between D- and L(+)-lactate. Thus, colonic D-lactate may be formed either from pyruvate by bacterial D-lactate dehydrogenase or from L(+)-lactate by racemization. In addition, relative expression levels of L(+)- and D-lactate have been shown in vitro to be affected by bacterial growth conditions (eg, sodium acetate, pH) for some bacterial species. Continue reading

D-lactic acid-producing probiotics and infants: Infant physiology (Part 2)

acidosisDuring acidosis, older subjects can double or triple their baseline rates of acid secretion, whereas the infant is already operating at relatively higher rates of acid secretion and is limited in the ability to further increment this response . Clinically, the immaturity of renal acidification means greater metabolic acidosis risk to the infant than the older child for the same accumulation of hydrogen ions in the blood. Choose a perfect online pharmacy where you could be shopping for depression zoloft any time, being sure your medical conditions will be under your complete control every step of the way.

L(+)- and D-lactate are optical isomers that differ only in the position of the alpha-hydroxy group. The predominant form of lactate normally found in the blood of humans and other vertebrates is L(+)-lactate, which is derived from pyruvate by the action of L-lactic dehydrogenase. Continue reading

D-lactic acid-producing probiotics and infants: Infant physiology (Part 1)

The infant brain undergoes rapid enlargement in size during the first two years of life, accompanied by a period of rapid cognitive development. Metabolic acidosis can have a negative impact on developmental outcome in infants. Nutrient digestion is not fully developed at birth. Each of the different digestive enzymes produced by the exocrine pancreas appears at a distinct time in gestation and their functional capacity increases postnatally. For instance, pancreatic amylase is scarcely detectable at birth and begins to rise after the first month, continuing to increase during the first two years. Continue reading

D-lactic acid-producing probiotics and infants: Metabolic acidosis

clinical manifestationsThe clinical manifestations of metabolic acidosis are nonspecific. One manifestation can be hyperventilation. Other clinical manifestations involve neurological signs and symptoms and, in the young, these may include vomiting, altered consciousness, poor feeding, inappropriate behaviour and crying, slurred speech, ataxia and coma. Chronic acidosis is associated with poor growth. Making a diagnosis of acidosis is difficult at any age because of the nonspecific nature of the signs and symptoms involved. In the very young, this is compounded by difficulties in eliciting signs and symptoms in young patients. Adding to the complexity of diagnosis is that normal physiological parameters change rapidly in the developing human infant. Continue reading

D-lactic acid-producing probiotics and infants (Part 2) / Buy Antidepressants Online

Along with the demonstration that the inoculation of germ-free mice with a commensal organism may upregulate expression of genes associated with gastrointestinal development and maturation , the influence of bacteria (and potentially artificially applied bacteria in the form of probiotics) on the health of children could be significant. In essence, by altering host-environment interactions, it is speculated that probiotic administration to the very young infant could alter time of onset or ultimate disease expression. However, clinicians should be aware that, at the current time, probiotic administration is a largely unregulated area of medical therapy without governmental end product quality control testing. There are concerns regarding the administration of probiotics to young infants, which include the unique condition of D-lactic acidosis. Continue reading

D-lactic acid-producing probiotics and infants (Part 1)

ingestion of probioticsThere are a number of potential benefits to the ingestion of probiotics that are particularly significant to infants and children. Perhaps the most documented therapeutic application of probiotics has been for infectious diarrhea, a condition that remains a significant concern due to morbidity, mortality and health care resource use. Moreover, bacterial resistance and problems related to the use of antibiotics have generated interest in new therapeutic modalities. Three reviews have concluded that probiotic organisms are effective in the treatment of infectious diarrhea by reducing the duration and frequency of diarrhea. Continue reading