Category Archives: Asthma : Part 7

Regional variations in risk factors for asthma in school children: DISCUSSION (3)

In the sex-stratified analysis, similar associations between asthma and risk factors were similar for both boys and girls; however, levels of significance were not met for the associations between mould or dampness and asthma in boys, and for previous ETS exposure from the mother in girls. The lack of statistical significance may be due to reduced sample size in the stratified analysis because the patterns and strength of associations were similar between boys and girls. A notable difference, however, was the significant association between rural living and asthma in girls. This finding for girls contradicts the more common pattern of reduced risk of asthma in rural settings such as farms. Reasons for this finding could not be determined from the present study. Future investigations should consider sex when investigating rural exposures. buy prednisone

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Regional variations in risk factors for asthma in school children: DISCUSSION (2)

Regional variations in risk factors for asthma in school children: DISCUSSION (2)Several studies and reviews have shown that parental smoking, especially maternal smoking, is associated with asthma or asthma symptoms. Our findings for current ETS exposure are difficult to interpret. It is possible that many of the mothers quit smoking as a result of their child’s asthma diagnosis, or those who are currently smoking may be smoking outside of the child’s environment, resulting in no relationship or inverse associations with asthma. More information about the nature of current smoking patterns of parents is required.
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Regional variations in risk factors for asthma in school children: DISCUSSION (1)

The results of our study confirm previously identified associations between personal characteristics and asthma, and also highlight the need to interpret associations between asthma and indoor environmental characteristics at a local level. In the present study, respiratory allergy was most strongly associated with asthma. Similarly, strong associations between allergy and asthma have been seen in other studies. Our study also supports previous studies showing that having at least one parent with asthma increases a child’s risk of developing asthma. Whereas other studies report inconsistent associations between early respiratory illnesses and asthma, our findings of an association were consistent between communities.
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Regional variations in risk factors for asthma in school children: RESULTS (4)

Regional variations in risk factors for asthma in school children: RESULTS (4)These associations were not significant in Swift Current. Although there was an increased risk of asthma in both communities if the child had previous ETS exposure from the mother (Swift Current: OR=1.87, 95% CI 1.06 to 3.30; Estevan: OR=2.00, 95% CI 1.17 to 3.43), there was an inverse association between asthma and current ETS exposure in Estevan that was borderline significant (OR=0.64, 95% CI 0.40 to 1.00), and there was no significant association between asthma and mother’s current smoking in Swift Current.
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Regional variations in risk factors for asthma in school children: RESULTS (3)

In Estevan, associations were found between asthma and prior exposure to ETS from the father (OR=1.67, 95% CI 1.07 to 2.60), the presence of home mould or dampness (OR=1.96, 95% CI 1.41 to 2.72), the presence of air conditioning (OR=0.57, 95% CI 0.41 to 0.80), and the presence of a fireplace (OR=0.69, 95% CI 0.48 to 0.99).

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Regional variations in risk factors for asthma in school children: RESULTS (2)

Regional variations in risk factors for asthma in school children: RESULTS (2)Unadjusted analysis
The prevalence of asthma was significantly higher in Estevan compared with Swift Current (21.4% versus 16.2%, respectively, crude OR=1.41, 95% CI 1.13 to 1.76). When considering personal characteristics, there were significant associations between asthma and respiratory allergy, early respiratory illness and family history of asthma (Table 3). Indoor characteristics associated with asthma were previous exposure to ETS from the mother, home mould or dampness, and living in a dwelling other than a single-family house (Table 4).

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Regional variations in risk factors for asthma in school children: RESULTS (1)

Participation in both communities was excellent; 88.9% in Swift Current and 94.2% in Estevan. The sex distribution was similar between Swift Current and Estevan (49.9% and 49.5% female, respectively). The prevalence of personal characteristics by town is presented in Table 1. A significantly higher proportion of children in Swift Current had a parent with more than a grade 12 education compared with children in Estevan, and a significantly lower proportion of children in Swift Current came from homes with two parents. ventolin inhalers
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Regional variations in risk factors for asthma in school children: METHODS (2)

Regional variations in risk factors for asthma in school children: METHODS (2)“Does your house have any damage caused by dampness (eg, wet spots on walls, floors)?”, or the question, “Are there signs of mould or mildew in any living areas in your home?”. Crowding was defined as the number of persons in the home divided by the number of rooms in the home. The proportion of life spent living in the current community was expressed as the number of years in the current location over age. Premature birth was defined as being born more than two weeks before the expected date. A history of early respiratory illness was considered to have occurred if there was a report of bronchitis, pneumonia, whooping cough or croup in the first two years of life. The type of dwelling was classified as single-family house or as other dwelling type, which included duplex, a more than two-family home and recreational vehicles, mobile homes and trailers. Buy Asthma Inhalers Online
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Regional variations in risk factors for asthma in school children: METHODS (1)

This was a cross-sectional population-based study of school children. The method of data collection has been previously described. Briefly, questionnaires were distributed to parents of all children attending grades 1 to 6 in Estevan and Swift Current schools. Pulmonary function testing was completed in children attending grades 1 to 4 and has been reported elsewhere. Ethical approval was obtained from the Advisory Committee on Ethics in Biomedical Research at the University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. Local school and health boards in each community also approved the study. The present analysis is based on questionnaire data only.
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Regional variations in risk factors for asthma in school children

Regional variations in risk factors for asthma in school childrenAsthma is a multifactorial disease, which is known to be associated with both personal and environmental factors. However, these relationships have been inconsistent among studies. Reasons behind these inconsistencies could be due to differences in study method, but could also be due to differences in local factors. Geographical variation in asthma prevalence has been reported both among and within countries. Several studies have examined the risk factors for asthma in multiple communities, with overall associations being the major interest. Few studies, however, have considered the associations between various indoor exposures and asthma by community. The identification of community-specific exposures to environmental factors and their associations with asthma could lead to the better implementation of local programs to help reduce asthma morbidity.
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